# Financial Ratios

This calculator is designed to show you 10 different financial ratios. Financial ratios are used as indicators that allow you to zero in on areas of your business that may need attention such as solvency, liquidity, operational efficiency and profitability.

## Financial Ratios

Below are your calculated financial ratios. Use these ratios to gauge your solvency, liquidity, operational efficiency and profitability. They are also useful measures to compare your business with others in your industry.
Profitability Ratios
Gross profit margin: GROSS_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO
Formula: Gross profit/sales
GROSS_PROFITS/SALES = GROSS_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO

This important ratio measures your profitability at the most basic level. Your total gross profit total (which is net sales - cost of goods sold) compared to your net sales . A ratio less than one means you are selling your product for less than it costs to produce. If this ratio remains less than one, you will not achieve profitability regardless of your volume or the efficiency of the rest of your business.

Operating profit margin: OPERATING_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO
Formula: Operating income/Sales
OPERATING_INCOME/SALES = OPERATING_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO

This ratio measures your profitability based on your earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). This measure is used to gauge the efficiency of the business before taking any financing means into account (such as debt financing and tax considerations). This ratio is often used to compare the operating efficiency between similar businesses.

Net profit margin: NET_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO
Formula: Net income/Sales
NET_INCOME_BEFORE_TAXES/SALES = NET_PROFIT_MARGIN_RATIO

Often referred to as the bottom line, this ratio takes all expenses into account including interest.

Liquidity Ratios
Current ratio: CURRENT_RATIO
Formula: Current Assets divided by current liabilities
TOTAL_CURRENT_ASSETS/TOTAL_CURRENT_LIABILITIES = CURRENT_RATIO

Your current ratio helps you determine if you have enough working capital to meet your short term financial obligations. A general rule of thumb is to have a current ratio of 2.0. Although this will vary by business and industry, a number above two may indicate a poor use of capital. A current ratio under two may indicate an inability to pay current financial obligations with a measure of safety.

Quick ratio: QUICK_RATIO
Formula: Current assets minus inventory divided by liabilities
(TOTAL_CURRENT_ASSETS-INVENTORY)/TOTAL_CURRENT_LIABILITIES = QUICK_RATIO

Also known as the "Acid Test", your Quick Ratio helps gauge your immediate ability to pay your financial obligations. Quick Ratios below 0.50 indicate a risk of running out of working capital and a risk of not meeting your current obligations. While industries and businesses vary widely, 0.50 to 1.0 are generally considered acceptable Quick Ratios.

Operating Ratios
Inventory turnover ratio: INVENTORY_TURNOVER_RATIO
Formula: Cost of goods sold/Inventory
COST_OF_GOODS_SOLD/INVENTORY = INVENTORY_TURNOVER_RATIO

This ratio measures the number of times your inventory "turned-over" during a time period. Generally, the higher this ratio the better your use of inventory. Low numbers indicate a large amount of capital tied up in inventory that may be more efficiently used elsewhere.

Sales to receivables ratio: SALES_TO_RECEIVABLES_RATIO
Formula: Net sales/Net receivables
SALES/RECEIVABLES = SALES_TO_RECEIVABLES_RATIO

This ratio measures the number of times your receivables "turned over". The higher the number, the more efficient you are at collecting your accounts receivable. A ratio that is too high or one that is increasing over time, may indicate an inefficient use of your working capital. It is important to compare this ratio to other businesses in your industry.

Return on assets: RETURN_ON_ASSETS
Formula: Net income before taxes/Total assets
NET_INCOME_BEFORE_TAXES/TOTAL_ASSETS = RETURN_ON_ASSETS

This ratio helps show how assets are being used to generate profits. One of the most common financial measures, it can be an effective tool to compare the profitability of two companies. If your return on assets is lower than a competitor, it may be an indication that they have found a more efficient means to operate through financing, technology, quality control or inventory management.

Solvency Ratios
Debt to worth ratio: DEBT_TO_WORTH_RATIO
Formula: Total liabilities/Net worth
TOTAL_LIABILITIES/NET_WORTH = DEBT_TO_WORTH_RATIO

Also called the leverage ratio, it is used to help describe how much debt is used to finance the business. While some debt may be prudent, depending on too much debt financing can increase risk.

Working capital: WORKING_CAPITAL
Formula: Current assets minus current liabilities
TOTAL_CURRENT_ASSETS-TOTAL_CURRENT_LIABILITIES = WORKING_CAPITAL

Working capital is used by a lender to help gauge the ability of a company to weather difficult financial periods. Working capital is calculated by subtracting current liabilities from current assets. Due to differences in businesses and the fact that working capital is not a ratio but an absolute amount, it is difficult to predict the ideal amount of working capital for your business without making use of other financial measures. (Including the Quick Ratio and the Current Ratio.)

## Input summary

Input Summary
Total current assets TOTAL_CURRENT_ASSETS
Total current liabilities TOTAL_CURRENT_LIABILITIES
Total long term assets TOTAL_LONG_TERM_ASSETS
Total long term liabilities TOTAL_LONG_TERM_LIABILITIES
Sales SALES
Receivables RECEIVABLES
Cost of goods sold COST_OF_GOODS_SOLD
Operating expenses OPERATING_EXPENSES
Interest expense INTEREST_EXPENSE
Inventory INVENTORY
Other income OTHER_INCOME

## Financial Ratios Definitions

Total current assets
This is any cash or asset that can be quickly turned into cash. This includes prepaid expenses, accounts receivable, most securities and your inventory.
Total current liabilities
This is a liability in the immediate future. This includes wages, taxes and accounts payable.
Total long term assets
This includes buildings and equipment (less depreciation), real estate and other assets that are not readily turned into income or cash.
Total long term liabilities
This includes mortgage, deferred taxes, notes payable and other long term liabilities.
Sales
Total sales for the period.
Receivables
Total balance in your accounts receivable.
Cost of goods sold
This is the total cost of the raw materials, supplies and labor required to produce your product for the period.
Operating expenses
Interest expense
Your total interest expense for the period.
Inventory
Total inventory which includes normal inventory, safety stock and work in process.
Other income
Any other income your company receives that was not through its operations. This includes the sale of appreciated property or securities.
Gross profits
Gross profits are your profits for the period before operating expenses, fixed expenses, taxes or interest. This is calculated as your sales minus your cost of goods sold.
Operating income
Total income generated from your operations after operating expenses but before interest and taxes.
Net income before taxes
Your income before taxes. This amount includes income not generated directly from your operations such as income from financial investments.
Gross profit margin
Formula: Gross profit/sales

This important ratio measures your profitability at the most basic level. Your total gross profit (which is net sales - cost of goods sold) compared to your net sales . A ratio less than one means you are selling your product for less than it costs to produce. If this ratio remains less than one, you will not achieve profitability regardless of your volume or the efficiency of the rest of your business.

Operating profit margin
Formula: Operating income/Sales

This ratio measures your profitability based on your earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). This measure is used to gauge the efficiency of the business before taking any financing means into account (such as debt financing and tax considerations). This ratio is often used to compare the operating efficiency between similar businesses.

Net profit margin
Formula: Net income/Sales

Often referred to as the bottom line, this ratio takes all expenses into account including interest.

Current ratio
Formula: Current Assets divided by current liabilities

Your current ratio helps you determine if you have enough working capital to meet your short term financial obligations. A general rule of thumb is to have a current ratio of 2.0. Although this will vary by business and industry, a number above two may indicate a poor use of capital. A current ratio under two may indicate an inability to pay current financial obligations with a measure of safety.

Quick ratio
Formula: Current assets minus inventory divided by liabilities

Also known as the "Acid Test", your Quick Ratio helps gauge your immediate ability to pay your financial obligations. Quick Ratios below 0.50 indicate a risk of running out of working capital and a risk of not meeting your current obligations. While industries and businesses vary widely, 0.50 to 1.0 are generally considered acceptable Quick Ratios.

Inventory turnover ratio
Formula: Cost of goods sold/Inventory

This ratio measures the number of times your inventory "turned-over" during a time period. Generally, the higher this ratio the better your use of inventory. Low numbers indicate a large amount of capital tied up in inventory that may be more efficiently used elsewhere.

Sales to receivables ratio
Formula: Net sales/Net receivables

This ratio measures the number of times your receivables "turned over". The higher the number, the more efficient you are at collecting your accounts receivable. A ratio that is too high or one that is increasing over time, may indicate an inefficient use of your working capital. It is important to compare this ratio to other businesses in your industry.

Return on assets
Formula: Net income before taxes/Total assets

This ratio helps show how assets are being used to generate profits. One of the most common financial measures, it can be an effective tool to compare the profitability of two companies. If your return on assets is lower than a competitor, it may be an indication that they have found a more efficient means to operate through financing, technology, quality control or inventory management.

Debt to worth ratio
Formula: Total liabilities/Net worth

Also called the leverage ratio, it is used to help describe how much debt is used to finance the business. While some debt may be prudent, depending on too much debt financing can increase risk.

Working capital
Formula: Current assets minus current liabilities

Working capital is used by a lender to help gauge the ability of a company to weather difficult financial periods. Working capital is calculated by subtracting current liabilities from current assets. Due to differences in businesses and the fact that working capital is not a ratio but an absolute amount, it is difficult to predict the ideal amount of working capital for your business without making use of other financial measures. (Including the Quick Ratio and the Current Ratio.)